Tracing Black Lives in Early Modern Germany (Rebekka von Mallinckrodt)

Reading list

Blom, P./ Kos, W., eds. (2011), Angelo Soliman. Ein Afrikaner in Wien, Vienna.

Diedrich, M. I. (2013), From American Slaves to Hessian Subjects: Silenced Black Narratives of the American Revolution, in: Honeck, M./ Klimke, M./ Kuhlmann, A., eds., Germany and the Black Diaspora. Points of Contact 1250-1914, New York, 92-114.

Häberlein, M. (2006), „Mohren“, ständische Gesellschaft und atlantische Welt, in: C. Schnurmann/ H. Lehmann, eds., Atlantic Understandings: Essays on European and American History in Honor of Hermann Wellenreuther, Hamburg, 77-102.

Honeck, M./ Klimke, M./ Kuhlmann, A., eds. (2013), Germany and the Black Diaspora. Points of Contact 1250-1914, New York.

Kuhlmann, A. (2013), Ambiguous Duty: Black Servants at German Ancien Régime Courts, in: Honeck, M./ Klimke, M./ Kuhlmann, A., eds., Germany and the Black Diaspora. Points of Contact 1250-1914, New York, 57-73.

Kuhlmann-Smirnov, A. (2013), Schwarze Europäer im Alten Reich. Handel, Migration, Hof, Göttingen.

Lind, V. (2004), Privileged Dependency on the Edge of the Atlantic World. Africans and Germans in the Eighteenth Century, in: Interpreting Colonialism, ed. B. R. Wells and P. Stewart, Oxford, 369-391.

Riesche, B. (2010), Schöne Mohrinnen, edle Sklaven, schwarze Rächer. Schwarzendarstellung und Sklavereithematik im deutschen Unterhaltungstheater (1770-1814), Hannover.

Sauer, W./ Wiesböck, A. (2007), Sklaven, Freie, Fremde. Wiener „Mohren“ des 17. und 18. Jhs., in: same, ed., Von Soliman zu Omofuma. Afrikanische Diaspora in Österreich 17. bis 20. Jh., Innsbruck, 23-56

Sauer, W., ed. (2007), Von Soliman zu Omofuma. Afrikanische Diaspora in Österreich 17. bis 20. Jh., Innsbruck.

Sauer, W. (2007), Angelo Soliman. Mythos und Wirklichkeit, in: Sauer, W., ed., Von Soliman zu Omofuma. Afrikanische Diaspora in Österreich 17. bis 20. Jh., Innsbruck, 59-96.

Weber, K. (2009), Deutschland, der atlantische Sklavenhandel und die Plantagenwirtschaft der Neuen Welt (15. bis 19. Jh.), in: Journal of Modern European History 7,1; 37-67.

Black Musicians in Early Modern Europe, 1450-1800 (Arne Spohr)


1. Primary Sources (both in HAB):

Repraesentatio der Fürstlichen Auffzuge, Ritterspiel auch Feurwerck vnd Ballet … Halle: Krusike/Schmied, 1617.

Loehneyssen, Georg Engelhard. Della Cavalleria. Grundtlicher Bericht von allem was zu der Reuterrei gehorig vnd einem Cavallier dauon zuwissen geburt. 2 vols. 2nd Ed. Remlingen, 1609 –1610. 3rd Ed. Remlingen, 1624.
[Both prints contain representations of black musicians in early modern tournament pageants].
2. Secondary Sources:

I. Black Musicians in Portugal and Spain, 1450-1700

Baker, Geoffrey. “Latin American Baroque: Performance as a Post-Colonial Act.” Early Music 36 (2008): 441-448
[Includes references to black slaves and their music, particularly to the issue of performing their music today as “early world music” without referring to their exploitation in the past].

Budasz, Rogiéro. “Black Guitar-Players and Early African-Iberian Music in Portugal and Brazil.” Early Music 35 (2007): 3-21.

Jordan, Annemarie. “Images of Empire: Slaves in the Lisbon Household and Court of Catherine of Austria.” Black Africans in Renaissance Europe, edited by T. F. Earle and Kate Lowe, 155-180. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
[On black musicians and jesters in Early Modern Portugal: 158-161]

Lowe, Kate. “The Stereotyping of Black Africans in Renaissance Europe.” Black Africans in Renaissance Europe, edited by T. F. Earle and Kate Lowe, 17-47. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
[On black musicians: 35-41]

Saunders, A. C. de C. M. A Social History of Black Slaves and Freedmen in Portugal, 1441-1555. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
[On black musicians: 105-107]: Mandatory.

Tinhorão, José Ramos. Os negros em Portugal: uma presença silenciosa. Lisbon: Editorial Caminho, 1988.
[On black musicians: 147-168]
II. Black Musicians in German-Speaking Lands, 1600-1800

Martin, Peter. Schwarze Teufel, edle Mohren. Hamburg: Junius Verlag, 1993.
[The book contains sections on black field trumpeters and other black military musicians living in northern Germany from the second half of the seventeenth century to the nineteenth century (113-128; 181-193), quoting archival sources and providing ample material for a highly interesting case study]: Mandatory.

Kittel, Ingeborg. “Mohren als Hofbediente und Soldaten im Herzogtum Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel.” Braunschweigisches Jahrbuch 46 (1965): 78-103.
[The article contains references to black court and military musicians active in the duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg during the 18th and 19th centuries, quoting local archival sources].

III. Biographies of Black Musicians in 18th-Century England and France as Case Studies: Bridgetower, Emidy, Saint-Georges, Sancho.

Banat, Gabriel. “Le Chevalier de Saint-Georges, Man of Music and Gentleman-at-Arms: The Life and Times of an Eighteenth-Century Prodigy.” Black Music Research Journal 10 (1990): 177-212
[Basically a highly condensed version of the book, see below].

Banat, Gabriel. The Chevalier de Saint-Georges: Virtuoso of the Sword and the Bow. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon, 2006.
[A detailed study on the violinist and composer Joseph Bologne, Chevalier de Saint-Georges (1745-1799), born on Guadeloupe, son of the plantation owner George Bologne and his African slave Nanon. Even though the author does not seem to be too concerned with issues such as race, alterity and social assimilation, the wealth of the presented material provides ample opportunity for a re-examination informed by post-colonial theory].

Dabbydeen, David, Gilmore, John, and Cecily Jones. The Oxford Companion to Black British History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
[A concise overview on black musicians and their music in 18th-century Britain: 328-330].

Fryer, Peter. Staying Power. The History of Black People in Britain. London: Pluto Press, 2010.
[Sections with references to black musicians: “Africans in Scotland,” Africans in England,” 2-10; “Black musicians,” 79-88; “Ignatius Sancho,” 93-98].

Lerma, Dominique René de. “The Chevalier de Saint-Georges.” The Black Perspective in Music 4 (1976), 3-21.

McGrady, Richard. “Joseph Emidy: An African in Cornwall.” The Musical Times 127 (1986): 619-623. Mandatory.

Sancho, Ignatius. Ignatius Sancho (1729-1780): An Early African Composer in England. The Collected Editions of His Music in Facsimile, edited by Josephine Wright. New York: Garland, 1981.
[A facsimile edition of Sancho’s music, with annotations and an introduction]

Wright, Josephine. “Ignatius Sancho (1729-1780), African Composer in England.” The Black Perspective in Music 7 (1979), 132-167. Mandatory.

Wright, Josephine. “George Polgreen Bridgetower: An African Prodigy in England 1789-99.” The Musical Quarterly 66 (1980): 65-82.


IV. Afro-European Musical Genres in the Early Modern Period: Villancico, Negrillo, Moresca

Baker, Geoffrey. “The ‘ethnic villancico’ and racial politics in 17th-century Mexico.” Devotional Music in the Iberian World, 1450-1800. The Villancico and Related Genres, edited by Tess Knighton and Alvaro Torrente, 399-408. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007
[Even though the chapter discusses the villancico outside of Europe, it can serve as a useful introduction into issues of racial politics negotiated within the genre]. Mandatory.

Nettl, Paul. “Traces of the Negroid in the ‘Mauresque’ of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries.” Phylon 5 (1944): 105-113.
[Methodologically highly dated and problematic article, but may perhaps spur a fruitful discussion].

Stevenson, Robert. “The Afro-American Musical Legacy to 1800.” The Musical Quarterly 54 (1968): 475-502.
[Also rather dated, but the only comprehensive overview so far. Contains references to early Western-African cultural encounters on the field of music, as well as the rise of musical genres of the West influenced by African musical practices, particularly during the 16th and 17th centuries].

Stevenson, Robert. “Ethnological Impulses in the Baroque Villancico.” Inter-American Music Review 14 (1994): 67-106.
V. Visual Representations of Early Modern Black Musicians

Bindman, David, Boucher, Bruce, and Helen Weston. “Between Court and City: Fantasies in Transition.” The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 3, part 3, edited by David Bindman and Henry Louis Gates Jr., 77-124. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.

Devisse, Jean and Michel Mollat. “The African Transposed.” The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 2, part 2, edited by David Bindman and Henry Louis Gates Jr., 185-279. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010.

Groom, Gloria. “Portrait of a Horn Player in the Household of Emperor Francis I.” Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies 32 (2006): 58-59.
[Short article on a portrait of a black horn player and gardener employed at the Austrian Court, c. 1830. This portrait (reproduced in the article) seems significant both artistically and socially]. Mandatory.

Massing, Jean Michel. “The European Scene.” The Image of the Black in Western Art, vol. 3, part 2, edited by David Bindman and Henry Louis Gates Jr., 214-260. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.
Anton Wilhelm Amo (Eve Rosenhaft)
Damis, Christine, ‘Le Philosophe connue pour sa peau noire: Anton Wilhelm Amo’, Rue Descartes, 2002/2 n° 36, p. 115-127.

Juterczenka, Sünne, ‘”Chamber Moors’”and Court Physicians. On the Convergence of Aesthetic Consumption and Racial Anthropology at Eighteenth-Century Courts in Germany’,in Entangled Knowledge. Scientific Discourses and Cultural Difference , hrsg. von Klaus Hoch and Gesa Mackenthun, Münster: Waxmann, 2012, S. 165-82. [good bibliography]

Kittel, Ingeborg, ‘Mohren als Hofbediente und Soldaten im Herzogtum Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel’, Braunschweigisches Jahrbuch 46 (1965), S. 78-103 Kuhlmann, Anne, ‘Ambiguous Duty: Black Servants at German Ancien Régime Courts’, in Mischa Honeck, Martin Klimke and Anne Kuhlmann (eds), Germany and the Black Diaspora. Points of Contact 1250-1914 (Oxford and New York: Berghahn, 2013), pp. 57-73

On Amo’s philosophy
Edeh, Yawovi Emmanuel , Die Grundlagen der philosophischen Schriften von Amo. In welchem Verhältnis steht Amo zu Christian Wolff, daß man ihn als “einen fürnehmlichen Wolffianer” bezeichnen kann? Essen: Die Blaue Eule, 2003.

Mabe, Jacob Emmanuel, Anton Wilhelm Amo from Intercultural Perspective, Nordhausen: Bautz, 2014.

Contemporaries and comparators
Blom, Philipp and Wolfgang Kos (ed.), Angelo Soliman. Ein Afrikaner in Wien, Wien: Christian Brandstätter, 2011.

Capitein, J.E.J., The Agony of Asar. A Thesis on Slavery by the Former Slave, Jacobus Elisa Johannes Capitein 1727-1747, trans. Grant Parker, Princeton: Markus Wiener, 2010.
Academic life in the 18th century

Clark, William, Academic Charisma and the Origins of the Research University, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006, Part I
Firla, Monika ‘Anton Wilhelm Amo (Nzema, heute Republik Ghana.) Kammermohr – Privatdozent für Philosophie – Wahrsager’, Tribus (Jahrbuch des Linden-Museums Stuttgart) 51 (2002), pp. 56-79.

Sephocle, Marilyn, ‘Anton Wilhelm Amo’, Journal of Black Studies 23:2 (Dec 1992), Special Issue: The Image of Africa in German Society, pp. 182-187.

Levecq, Christine, ‘Jacobus Capitein: Dutch Calvinist and Black Cosmopolitan’, Research in African Literatures 44: 4 (Winter 2013), pp. 145-66

Morrison, Heather, ‘Dressing Angelo Soliman’, Eighteenth-Century Studies 3 (2011), pp. 361-82.

Smith, Justin D., Nature, Human Nature, and Human Difference: Race in Early Modern Philosophy, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015, Chapter 8.
African Indentity Formation in the Atlantic World (Gunvor Simonson)

Required reading

1. Frederik Svane, “1st June 1748: Declaration by Friedrich Pedersen Svane, Copenhagen,” in Ole Justesen, ed., Danish Sources for the History of Ghana, 1657-1754, Fontes historiae africanae, Series varia (Copenhagen: Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, 2005), 725-41

2. Berlin, Ira, “From Creole to African: Atlantic Creoles and the Origins of African-American Society in Mainland North America,” The William and Mary Quarterly 53, no. 2 (April 1996), 251-88.

3. Palmié, Stephan, “Creolization and Its Discontents,” Annual Review of Anthropology 35 (2006), 433-56.

4. Anne Kuhlmann, “Ambigious Duty. Black Servants at German Ancien Régime Courts,” in Mischa Honeck, Martin Klimke, and Anne Kuhlmann, eds., Germany and the Black Diaspora. Points of Contact 1250-1914 (New York & Oxford: Berghahn, 2013), 57-73.

5. Gilroy, Paul, The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993), 1-40.


1. Chater, Kathleen, Untold histories, black people in England and Wales during the period of the British slave trade, c 1660-1807, (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2009).

2. Gerzina, Gretchen Holbrook, Black London. Life before Emancipation, (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1995).

3. Honeck, Mischa, Martin Klimke, and Anne Kuhlmann, eds., Germany and the Black Diaspora. Points of Contact 1250-1914 (New York & Oxford: Berghahn, 2013).

4. Khan, Aisha, “Good to Think? Creolization, Optimism, and Agency,” Current Anthropology 48, no. 5 (2007), 653-673.
5. Landers, Jane G., Atlantic Creoles in the Age of Revolutions, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2010).

6. Lindsay, Lisa A., and John Wood Sweet, eds., Biography and the Black Atlantic (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014).

7. Morgan, Jennifer L., “”Some Could Suckle over Their Shoulder”: Male Travelers, Female Bodies, and the Gendering of Racial Ideology, 1500-1770,” The William and Mary Quarterly 54, no. 1 (1997), 167-192.

8. Sparks, Randy J., Where the Negroes Are Masters. An African Port in the Era of the Slave Trade, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2014).

9. Sweet, James H., Domingos Álvares, African Healing, and the Intellectual History of the Atlantic World, (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2011).

Sources for Black lives in Renaissance Italy and Portugal (Kate Lowe)
Kate Lowe, ‘The stereotyping of black Africans in Renaissance Europe’, in T. F. Earle and K. J. P. Lowe eds., Black Africans in Renaissance Europe (Cambridge, 2005), pp. 17-47

Kate Lowe, ‘The global consequences of mistranslation: the adoption of the “black but …” formulation in Europe, 1440-1650’, Religions, 3 (2012), pp. 544-55

John Vogt, ‘The Lisbon slave house and African trade, 1486-1521’, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 117, 1 (1973), pp. 1-16

A.C. de C. M. Saunders, ‘The life and humour of João de Sá Panasco, o negro, former slave, court jester and gentleman of the Portuguese royal household (fl. 1524-1567)’, in F. W. Hodcroft et al., Medieval and Renaissance Studies on Spain and Portugal in Honour of P. E. Russell (Oxford, 1981), pp. 180-9

Kate Lowe, ‘Visible lives: black gondoliers and other black Africans in Renaissance Venice’, Renaissance Quarterly, 66:2 (2013), pp. 412-52

T. F. Earle and K. J. P. Lowe eds., Black Africans in Renaissance Europe (Cambridge, 2005), especially
Jeremy Lawrance, ‘Black Africans in Renaissance Spanish literature’, pp. 70-93

Annemarie Jordan, ‘Images of empire: slaves in the Lisbon household and court of Catherine of Austria’, pp. 155-80

Sergio Tognetti, ‘The trade in black African slaves in fifteenth-century Florence’, pp. 213-24

Debra Blumenthal, ‘“La casa dels Negres”: black African solidarity in late medieval Valencia’, pp. 225-46

Joaneath Spicer, ed., Revealing the African Presence in Renaissance Europe, exh. cat. (Baltimore: Walters Art Museum, 2012)

A.C. de C. M. Saunders, A Social History of Black Slaves and Freedmen in Portugal, 1441-1555 (Cambridge, 1982)

Paul H. D. Kaplan, ‘Italy, 1490-1700’, in The Image of the Black in Western Art. Volume III. From the “Age of Discovery” to the Age of Abolition. Part I: Artists of the Renaissance and Baroque, eds. David Bindman, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Karen C. C. Dalton (Cambridge, MA, 2010), pp. 93-190

Debra Blumenthal, Enemies and Familiars: Slavery and Mastery in Fifteenth-Century Valencia (Ithaca and London, 2009)

Hans Werner Debrunner, Presence and Prestige: Africans in Europe, A History of Africans in Europe before 1918 (Basel, 1979)

Elizabeth McGrath, ‘Ludovico il Moro and his Moors’, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 65 (2002), pp. 67-94

Kate Lowe, ‘“Representing” Africa: ambassadors and princes from Christian Africa to Renaissance Italy and Portugal, 1402-1608’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 17 (2007), pp. 101-28

Aurelia Martín Casares and Marga G. Barranco, ‘Popular literary depictions of black African weddings in early modern Spain’, Renaissance and Reformation/Renaissance et réforme, 31.2 (2008), pp. 107-21

Imtiaz Habib, Black Lives in the English Archives, 1500-1677: Imprints of the Invisible (Aldershot, 2008)

Letters from Surinam (Carl Haarnack)

1. Paul E. Logan, Images of the Black: J.E. Kolb’s Erzählungen von den Sitten and Schicksalen der Negersklaven, in: Monatshefte, Vol. 72, No. 4 (Winter, 1980), pp. 389-400.

2. Wendy Sutherland, Black Skin, White Skin and the Aesthetics of the Female Body in: Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Ziegler’s Die Mohrinn, in: Colors 1800/1900/2000: Sign of Ethnic Difference. Edited by Birgit Tautz. Amsterdamer Beiträge zur neueren Germanistik. Band 56-2004. Amsterdam-New York: Rodopi, 2004. p. 67-82.

3. Mary Louise Pratt, Eros and abolition, in: Imperial Eyes, Travel writing and Transculturation. London and New York: Routhledge, 1992; page 86-107.
4. Susanne Zantop, Betrothal and divorce: or, revolution in the House, in: ‘Colonial Fantasies. Conquest, Family, and Nation in Precolonial Germany, 1770-1870. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 1997. P. 141-161.

5. Joep Leersen, Imagology: History and Method, in: Imagology. The cultural construction and literary representation of national characters. A critical survey. Manfred Beller and Joep Leerssen (ed.). Amsterdam-New York: Rodopi, 2007. p. 17-32.

6. Derek Hughes (ed.), An impartial description of Surinam (1667), in: Versions of Blackness. Key text on slavery from the seventeenth century. Cambridge University Press, 2007. p.331-338.

7. M. Firla: Exotisch – höfisch – bürgerlich: Afrikaner in Württemberg vom 15. bis 19. Jahrhundert: Katalog zur Ausstellung des Hauptstaatsarchivs Stuttgart. 2001.

8. Han Vermeulen, A.L. Schlözer and the German Invention of Völkerkunde, 1767-1808, in: Early History of Ethnography and Ethnology in the German Enlightenment. Anthropological Discourse in Europe and Asia 1710-1808. Leiden, 2008. p. 199-247.

9. Beverly Harris-Schenz, Black images in eighteenth-Century German literature. – Aus: Stuttgarter Arbeiten zur Germanistik. – Stuttgart. Akademischer Verlag Hans-Dieter Heinz. 1981.

10. Barbara Riesche. Schöne Mohrinnen, edle Sklaven, schwarze Rächer. Schwarzdarstellung und Sklavereithematik im deutschen Unterhaltungstheater (1770-1814). Forum für deutschsprachiges Drama und Theater in Geschichte und Gegenwart 2. Wehrhan, 2010.


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